The Security Council (UNSC) was established in 1945 as one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and convened for its inaugural session in 1946. UNSC is tasked with the crucial duty of maintaining global peace and security.
UNSC consists 15 member states with five out of the fifteen being permanent members (P5), which are namely, the United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia, and China. The remaining 10 members will be chosen by the United Nations General Assembly for a 2-year term considering factors such as contribution to international peace and regional balance. Each member permanent or otherwise will hold the presidency of the council for one month.
Furthermore, in instances where the topic of discussion includes a nation that is not a member of the UNSC, the said nation will be granted participation rights, but will not be eligible to vote. Moreover, if any state is to dispute with a decision, they will be allowed to participate under the consideration of the UNSC. In such an event, the council will set the rules of conduct for the non-member state at its discretion.
The UNSC holds many responsibilities that contribute to the nurturing of international security. This includes,
- Investigating any situations, threats that may lead to disharmony between nations and suggesting diplomatic ways of overcoming them.
- Deploying peacekeepers and invoking a cease-fire in situations of conflict.
- Applying economic sanctions to avoid threats to world peace.
- Establishing subsidiary organs as is necessary to uphold the mandate of the committee.
In terms of voting procedure, all decisions with regard to procedural matters will be affirmed with 9 out of fifteen votes. Decisions on any other matter will be affirmed with 9 votes inclusive of the concurring votes of the P5 nations. A single vote against a non-procedural matter to be made being cast by one of the P5 members will be treated as a veto to the matter and will without exception be treated as immediately defeated.
Even at SLMUN, the role of the UNSC remains no different to the major role it plays in the UN. Therefore, it is one of the most sought after and challenging committees, and it is a privilege to receive the opportunity to be one of the fifteen delegates of the UNSC. In contrast to other committees implemented, UNSC is generally approached by more seasoned delegates as the level of debate and discussion in this committee is extremely complex, demanding and competitive. UNSC caters to more experienced delegates and encourages them in achieving new heights in terms of diplomacy and intelligence and furthering their knowledge on a wider scope of global matters while simultaneously experiencing immense growth as speakers.